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Post "Cara al sol" and "Horst-Wessel-Lied"
Created by John Eipper on 12/10/19 4:03 AM

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"Cara al sol" and "Horst-Wessel-Lied" (Carmen Negrin, France, 12/10/19 4:03 am)

In response to Silvia Ribelles (November 18th), I wonder what would happen in Germany if there were a play about the Second World War and the show included the "Horst-Wessel-Lied."

In Spain people (the press, intellectuals, historians...) often feel obliged to please both sides of the historical political spectrum, in spite of the fact that there is a law against apologies for Francoism, and if anything is part of that apology it is the "Cara al sol."

JE comments:  Carmen, could you walk us through the Spanish law?  I presume you refer to the 2007 Ley de Memoria Histórica.  I don't think it specifically bans "Cara al sol."  "Horst-Wessel-Lied" has been forbidden in Germany since 1945.  Recently there was a legal case to force Apple to remove the song from iTunes.

Ouch--now I have both songs running through my head.


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  • Legality of "Cara al sol" in Spain (Carmen Negrin, France 12/11/19 5:55 AM)
    In my post from yesterday, I was indeed referring to Spain's Historical Memory law (Ley de Memoria Histórica). I think the law is far from being perfect, in particular due to the fact that there are no consequences if not applied and also because it leaves space for interpretation, besides being incomplete.

    But its article 15: symbols and public monuments, which is the perfect example of an incomplete and ambiguous text, can be considered to apply to Franco's anthem "Cara al sol." The anthem, as mentioned before, is the symbol of the regime, as is the flag, which has, in a different context, already been catalogued as unconstitutional even though it appears regularly in soccer games and marches, with Vox and others.


    JE comments:  A philosophical conundrum:  is a law really a law if there are no consequences?  Otherwise it's just a suggestion.


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    • Spain's Historical Memory Law and Artistic Performances (Silvia Ribelles de la Vega, USA 12/15/19 4:15 AM)

      In response to Carmen Negrín's posts December 10th and 11th on "Cara al sol":


      I frankly do not believe that the aim of the director and creator of the show which was cancelled because "Cara al sol" was in the program was to promote or incite Francoism. "Cara al sol" was part of an ample repertoire that included songs and military marches from both sides of the civil strife in Spain.


      If we look at the Law of Historical Memory, Article 15, which has four sections, it is stated in Section 1 that "the local administrations shall take appropriate measures to remove plaques, emblems, and any other objects or commemorative mentions which promote the military uprising," etc. We cannot deny that "Cara al sol" falls within this category. But in the next line, on Section 2 of the same article, the law is clear: "What is envisaged in the previous section shall not apply when (...) artistic, architectonic, or religious-artistic reasons protected by law concur " (Lo previsto en el apartado anterior no será de aplicación cuando las menciones sean de estricto recuerdo privado, sin exaltación de los enfrentados, o cuando concurran razones artísticas, arquitectónicas o artístico-religiosas protegidas por la ley).


      From this, I understand, although I could be wrong because I am a lay person when it comes to interpreting laws, that if they are part of an artistic representation, like a concert definitely is, those symbols are not to be removed.



      Otherwise, how could a movie director shoot a film about the Spanish Civil War without Francoist symbols? How could museums show their exhibits? How could books be printed without those photos? Are we going to "sanitize" history lest we offend someone? Where do we draw the line?


      John, enjoy your mojitos by the pool. Don´t spill them over the keyboard!


      JE comments:  The concert performance clearly seems to come under the artistic umbrella--in contrast, say, to singing "Cara al sol" at a political rally.  With such a historically charged song, however, it may be impossible to separate the art from the politics.  Hence the intense debate.


      Alas, Varadero has a shortage of spearmint at present, so mojitos are difficult to find.  But there's nothing wrong with a café con leche this fine morning!

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      • "Cara al sol" and Artistic Expression (José Ignacio Soler, Venezuela 12/16/19 4:43 AM)
        I have been following the posts about "Cara al Sol," which apparently was the reason for the recent cancellation of a concert in Salamanca, as well Carmen Negrín's anger and indignation about this issue.

        First I imagine Carmen knows that the song was not a Francoist hymn. Since 1935 the song was the hymn of the Spanish "Partido Falangista." Furthermore it is incorrect to consider Franco a Falangista. There many historical facts testifying that el Generalísimo always wanted to eliminate this party, which he finally achieved.


        It seems somehow disproportional to argue the song should be forbidden in concerts. I agree with Silvia Ribelles's argument that the goal of the concert in question was not to promote Falangismo ideologically, as well as John E's comments that the song seems to come under the artistic umbrella. Moreover, this is a democratic right under freedom of expression, provided it is not played to promote a political purpose. This is the same right many times claimed by "leftist" people to accuse, insult and discredit other political fractions and figures.


        Finally it seems somehow disproportional to compare the symbolism of the Nazis with this song. I doubt Falangists, despite their radical fanaticism, committed the similar horrendous crimes the Nazis did.


        So, please let's try do not take things out of proportion.


        JE comments:  This discussion makes me think of "Dixie," the unofficial anthem of the Southern Confederacy.  It was also Abraham Lincoln's favorite song--and written by a Northerner (from Ohio).


        We know that "Cara al sol" started out with the Falangists, but at what point did Franco embrace the song as his own?


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        • Franco and the Falange (Paul Preston, UK 12/16/19 4:00 PM)
          In response to José Ignacio Soler (December 16th), there is no basis whatsoever for stating that Franco wanted to eliminate the Falange. He wanted to take it over and domesticate it, which is what he did.

          Once amalgamated with the Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista into the so-called Movimiento (with the snappy title "Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas Ofensivas Nacional-Sindicalistas"), It provided much needed mass support for himself and his regime. He once remarked to one of his ambassadors that this single party was "the claque which accompanies me on my tours around Spain."


          Why would any dictator want to eliminate his claque?


          JE comments:  Paul, the happiest of Holidays to you!  I want you to know that your book Un pueblo traicionado made the trip with us to Cuba.  I'm enjoying it immensely, and would venture that it's the first-ever copy to visit the island.


          Didn't Hitler eliminate his original claque, the SA/Brownshirts?


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        • Franco, "Cara al sol," and the Hitler Comparison (Carmen Negrin, France 12/17/19 5:09 AM)
          In reply to José Ignacio Soler (December 16th), of course Franco embraced the song "Cara al sol." All the kids had to sing it in school--not in 1935, but in '39 and '49 and '59 and '69 and in between and after!

          Let's not forget that Franco was buried next to Primo de Rivera, father of the Falange, who is still lying in Cuelgamuros, hopefully not forever.


          Of course Franco absorbed the Falangistas, nobody is contesting that. He also got rid of a few of them on his way up. From the very beginning of his saga.


          But, the fact is that "Cara al sol" became very soon the symbol of Franco own regime.


          As far as comparing the Nazis and Franco, I don't mind saying, and without getting at all angry, that the ideas were not so far apart, he also imposed his racial laws, he fed the prisoners about the same amount of calories as were given in the German concentration camps, he also played with the concept of genetic "redness" (instead of Jewishness) and jailed or killed people just for bring the father, brother or son of someone; this was the case of my great grandfather and like him, way too many.  I could go on with the similarities.


          As opposed to Hitler, Franco didn't even rise to power legally. The quantity of people killed is not a comparative element as far as I am concerned. They were two of the same kind. One was successful at the beginning and the other one, less ambitious, stayed far longer.


          JE comments:  What do we know about Franco's "redness" pseudo-science?  Did it get more "biological" than the catch-all "Bolshevik/Zionist/Freemason" epithet?


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          • Antonio Vallejo Najera's "Red Gene" Theories (Paul Preston, UK 12/19/19 2:34 PM)
            Carmen Negrín (December 18th) is referring to the work of Antonio Vallejo Nájera.

            I wrote about him in my book The Spanish Holocaust as follows: Obsessed with the need for racial cleanliness, Vallejo had written a book in 1934 arguing in favour of the castration of psychopaths. As a member of the army medical corps, he had spent time in Germany during the First World War visiting prison camps. He also met the German psychiatrists Ernst Kretschmer, Julius Schwalbe and Hans Walter Gruhle whose work influenced him profoundly. In the Civil War, he was made head of the Psychiatric Services of the rebel army. In August 1938, he requested permission from Franco to set up the Laboratory of Psychological Investigations. Two weeks later, he was authorised to do so. His purpose was to pathologize left-wing ideas. The results of his research gave the delighted military high command "scientific" arguments to justify their views on subhuman nature of their adversaries and he was promoted to Colonel.


            Vallejo's quest for the environmental factors that fostered the "red gene" and the links between Marxism and mental deficiency took the form of psychological tests carried out on prisoners already physically exhausted and mentally anguished. His team consisted of two physicians, a criminologist and two German scientific advisers. His subjects were captured members of the International Brigades in San Pedro de Cardeña and fifty Republican women prisoners in Málaga, thirty of whom were awaiting execution. In the latter case, starting from the premise that they were degenerate and thus prone to Marxist criminality, he explained "female revolutionary criminality" by reference to the animal nature of the female psyche and the "marked sadistic nature" unleashed when political circumstances allowed females to "satisfy their latent sexual appetites."


            Vallejo's theories that were used to justify the sequestration of Republican children were gathered in a book entitled "The eugenics of Spanishness and the regeneration of the race." More environmental than biological, his eugenic racism postulated that a race was constituted by a series of cultural values. In Spain, these values, the prerequisites of national health, were hierarchical, military and patriotic. Everything that the Republic and the left stood for was inimical to them and therefore had to be eradicated. Obsessed with what he called "the transcendent task of the cleansing of our race," his model was the Inquisition which had protected Spain from poisonous doctrines in the past. He advocated "a modernised Inquisition, with a different focus, other ends, means and organization but an Inquisition nonetheless." The health of the race required that children be separated from their "red" mothers.


            Authorisation for the application of his theories was facilitated by his links with both Franco (whose wife Carmen Polo was a friend of Vallejo's wife) and with the Falange. He dedicated his book on the psychopathology of war, which incorporated his work on the links between Marxism and mental deficiency, "in respectful and admiring homage to the undefeated imperial Caudillo." Vallejo also had a direct link to the regime organisation concerned with war orphans, Auxilio Social.


            JE comments:  Is there anything more scary than putting a "scientific" spin on cruelty?  My thanks to Paul Preston for explaining this chilling moment of Spain's history.  One tends to associate the vilest forms of eugenics with the Nazis, but Franco was no slouch in that department.


            (We've just returned home from the Cuba, after a smooth and uneventful flight.)


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            • California's Eugenics Law, 1909 (Eugenio Battaglia, Italy 12/20/19 4:53 AM)

              Regarding racist pseudo-science, do not forget the US. See Adam Cohen and his 2016 book Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, American Eugenics, and the Sterilization of Corrie Buck and the course on eugenics from California, which spread all over the US from early in the last century.


              JE comments:  California's 1909 eugenics law led to the highest number of forced sterilizations in the country.  What is surprising is that the law remained in force through the 1960s.  Here's a disturbing article on the state typically considered the nation's most "progressive":


              https://www.uvm.edu/~lkaelber/eugenics/CA/CA.html


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            • How Many Red Genes Can Dance on the Head of a Pin? (from Gary Moore) (John Eipper, USA 12/20/19 7:06 AM)

              Gary Moore writes:



              Thanks to Paul Preston (Dec 19) and his book The Spanish Holocaust
              for a deft review of pseudo-scientist Vallejo and the "red gene," pillars
              of obsessive orthodoxy under Franco.


              Sir Paul's verbal tour of this
              under-reported chamber in the halls of fanatical junk science
              brought out core concerns, not only the abusiveness itself, but its
              self-described heritage in the Inquisition. Besides the obvious parallel
              to Hitler's "race science," there is also the less directly predatory
              but still disastrously blind mania that was called Lysenkoism,
              flourishing under Stalin (mainly fantasies about agronomy, not humans,
              but still sending some real scientists to prison).


              What other candidates might WAIS suggest for the pantheon of
              pseudo-scientific fantasizers?


              It's really not so far from this family tree--and backs into the original Inquisition--
              to consider St. Thomas's earnest 93 pages on "the hierarchy, movements, love,
              knowledge, will, speech, and habits" of angels. Is it true that at least two modern-era
              popes (1879 and 1921) have endorsed the associated work as official Catholic
              doctrine?


              In today's Russia, a new form of Lysenkoism is said to be sprouting:


              https://www.cell.com/current-biology/comments/S0960-9822(17)30949-1


              JE comments:  "Sprouting" is perhaps the best verb in this context!  A rebirth of Stalinist science is unsurprising in a nation where Stalin's reputation is again flourishing.  The article above states that 47% of Russians (in 2017) approved of Stalin's "managerial" skills.  A grim statistic, but this also reassures us that 53% do not.  During our week in Cuba, I saw two Stalin t-shirts proudly worn by Russian tourists.  Interestingly (pardon my eugenics), both wearers had markedly Tatar/Central Asian features.

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              • Catholic, Jewish, and Muslim Angels (Edward Jajko, USA 12/21/19 4:53 AM)
                Pope Pius XI, in his encyclical "Studiorum ducem" of June 29, 1923, on the 600th anniversary of the canonization of the Angelic Doctor Thomas Aquinas, wrote that the philosophy and thought of Thomas Aquinas were officially those of the Roman Catholic Church. This is, however, not a matter of faith and morals, a papal proclamation that all Catholics must, on pain of mortal sin or even excommunication, necessarily believe. In the same encyclical, Pius XI proclaimed the "Angelicum," the papal university in Rome named for and promulgating the teachings of Thomas Aquinas, as the premier theological institute and "the place where he dwells." I know that a degree from the Angelicum is prestigious, like one from Harvard, Yale, or Princeton, or Oxford/Cambridge. But it's not a matter of belief involving my soul. Nor is Thomism. Despite "Studiorum ducem," I am free to pick and abide by any system of Catholic philosophy.

                Granted, in his 1879 encyclical "Aeterni Patris," Pope Leo XIII pronounced Thomistic philosophy as the official philosophical system of Catholicism. But neither Leo XIII nor Pius XI could decree or order that Catholics must believe this.


                As for Thomas's disquisitions on angels, I kind of enjoy them. There is an answer to the perennial question about how many angels can dance (which is to say, position themselves) on the head--even the point--of a pin, and that is, an infinite number, since they do not occupy corporeal space. Thomas's angels also anticipated modern science and fantasy fiction. Star Trek popularized "Beam me up, Scotty." Thomas's angels can travel from place to place, person to person, instantaneously.


                My late mother and grandmother taught a simple old Polish prayer to our guardian angels, asking for protection, to my late brother and me going on more than 80 years ago, and I still say it.  Aside from this, I have spent years involved with religions and traditions that believe in angels. Among the Jews, a מלאך, "mal'akh," was originally a messenger, a stranger who came and went, leaving a gift, information, or a miracle. In the Babylonian Exile and the further contact with Persians, the Jewish belief was expanded. Wings and other attributes of angels are pure Persian, with some Babylonian thrown in.


                Islam has incorporeal angels, like Judaism, and it is Jibril--Gabriel--who reveals the Qur'an to the prophet Muhammad. But in addition to the ملك, "malak," the incorporeal angel, Islam teaches that there is another type of being, the جن, "jinn," semi-human and semi-angelic. The jinn can appear and involve themselves in human affairs when they wish, for good or ill. That this belief in the jinn is taken most seriously and is not considered the stuff of fairy tales is shown in s book by ‘Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha'rani (1492 or 1493-1565), "Kashf al-hijab wal-rann ‘an wajh as'ilat al-jann." In this curious little book, "the lifting of the veils from the face of the questions of the Jinn," Sha'rani says that one day he was in his mosque practicing his trade as a weaver when there was a commotion. His disciples--he was a Sufi master--were trying to prevent a dog from entering, dogs being unclean. But the "cute yellow dog" persisted, and Sha'rani told his men to stop, that this was no ordinary dog. He had it brought to him; saw that it had a qirtas, a scroll, in its mouth; took and unrolled the qirtas and read that it was made up of questions that the jinn had posed to their own theologians who had been unable to answer them; that they therefore addressed them to Sha'rani.


                There are devils as well. Hebrew Satan is Shaytan in Arabic and Islam. Greek Diabolos is Iblis in Arabic. Arab and Arab-influenced cultures also have the lesser spirit, or sprite, the ‘ifrit, which can be mildly, seriously, or nastily mischievous. A world of angels and demons--something I am quite familiar with.


                By the way, the old Polish prayer I mentioned is:



                Aniele stróżu mój /

                Ty zawsze przy mnie stój /

                Rano, wieczor, we dnie, w nocy /

                Bądź mi zawsze ku pomocy.



                Guardian angel mine /

                Always stand by me /

                In the morning, the evening, by day, at night /

                Always be of help to me.


                JE comments:  A most touching prayer, which rhymes beautifully in Polish.  Ed, it must have comforted you many times when the going got rough.  I'm particularly thinking of 1967, when you were interned by the Egyptians.


                Note the linguistic similarities of Angels and Demons (Satan) in both Arabic and Hebrew.  Another interesting twist:  that an "unclean" animal for Muslims could also be a messenger from God.  Here's a related factoid that may or may not be relevant:  Mexicans consider yellow dogs to be the luckiest, and have an expression "suerte de perro amarillo" to refer to a particularly blessed individual.  In English we don't even have "yellow" dogs.  Don't we just call them tan?

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                • Yellow Dogs, Explained (David Duggan, USA 12/22/19 11:35 AM)
                  John E commented that we don't have "yellow" dogs in the Anglophone world.

                  Yellow labs? And there used to be an expression "yellow dog Democrat," i.e., a voter who would vote for even a yellow dog running as a Democrat.


                  JE comments: I really screwed the pooch on this one. Let's add one more:  Ed Jajko wrote to remind me of the classic Disney tear-jerker, Old Yeller.  Yes, there's something special about yellow dogs.



                  Am I color-challenged?  I'll try to redeem myself with cats.  In English, orange cats are orange, but they are red in the other languages I know.


                  We've been "fostering" young Forrest (formerly Rudy) at WAIS HQ for the last few weeks.  He was living on the streets and very cold.  I've recruited him for a survey of our non-Anglophone natives:  what color is Forrest? 


                  (By the by, anyone want to adopt a handsome adolescent kitty?  He's just been "fixed"...and delivery is free.)


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                  • More Yellow Dogs: The Mountain Cur (Michael Sullivan, USA 12/23/19 3:31 AM)
                    I had a Mountain cur who lived to be 16 and he was probably the smartest, best hunting dog I ever had. They are a brindle in color and are normally born with a bobtail!

                    The early US settlers used them as they catch snakes from under or on the ground, catch rabbits and birds on the ground or in bushes and chase other animals up trees and bark till the hunter comes along. They are ferocious in the hunt yet make great pets. They have fantastic stamina and are very powerful dogs. I attach a photo of Boogie below.


                    Historians say that "Old Yeller" was actually a Mountain cur in real life vice a yellow lab in the movie...


                    Merry Christmas and a super WAISly 2020!


                    JE comments: Same to you, Michael!  Boogie is below. What a fine dog!  Wikipedia tells us they come in "black, brindle, black & brindle, yellow" (my emphasis added).  When I said we don't have yellow dogs in English--well, I was barking up the wrong tree.  But the "corrective" responses from the WAISitudes have been a lot of fun.


                    Mountain curs were especially common in Appalachia, and following the migration of many mountain folk to the cities during and after WWII, the breed declined in popularity.



                    Since this discussion is about language, here are 29 dog-related idioms.  WAISers, please help us expand our list to other languages:


                    https://www.rover.com/blog/uk/how-dog-friendly-are-these-29-dog-idioms-what-do-they-mean/



                     

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                    • Yes, You Can Teach an Old Dog New Tricks (Patrick Mears, Germany 12/23/19 5:23 AM)
                      I loved the discussion by Michael Sullivan and John E, and especially enjoyed the list of dog idioms, which I forwarded on to my daughter, the proud owner of an Australian Shepherd and a dog-lover extraordinaire. I am sure that I will hear more from her soon.

                      Also, I should point out that the old adage, "You can't teach an old dog new tricks," was flatly refuted by the cover of this Life magazine back in 1926. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6684/ .


                      Best to all in WAISdom this Holiday season.


                      JE comments:  Same to you, Pat, and happy birthday to Connie!  The 1926 Life cover celebrates "flapper" culture, which was probably the biggest shift in female fashion up to that point--"bobbed" hair, slender profile, and freedom from oppressive garments.  I always understood the flapper aesthetic as the result of women filling many "male" jobs during the Great War.  You couldn't perform factory work in a corset and hoop skirt.

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                  • More Yellow Dogs: An Expression in Persian (Edward Jajko, USA 12/23/19 3:58 AM)
                    The Persians have a saying, "Sag-e zard barâdar-e shoghâleh hast," or, "the/a yellow dog is the brother of the jackal."

                    In other words, six of one, half a dozen of the other.


                    JE comments:  Yes, there's something magical about yellow dogs!  Keep the expressions coming! 


                    I was Googling around and found an entire YouTube channel from Honduras, "El Perro Amarillo TV."  It seems to be one guy talking about politics.  I should watch some of his clips--it's been a long time since I caught up on Honduran events.


                    https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNqgnO-vOGiY9fE60NN9fNw


                    Finally, there's a story from the incomparable O Henry:  "Memoirs of a Yellow Dog."

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                  • Orange Cats, Red Cats... (Eugenio Battaglia, Italy 12/23/19 7:46 AM)
                    GATTO ROSSO...bellissimo gatto rosso.

                    JE comments: Eugenio Battaglia richly deserves the honor of WAISdom's first-ever all-Italian post! Eugenio refers to our foster "furbaby," Forrest the Cat.  There's no question he's orange, but humans of the same fur tone are called redheads.  (Donald Trump may be the first orangehead in human history.)


                    So we've completed the trifecta of Latin-derived languages:  French, Spanish, and Italian all speak of red cats.  What about non-Romance languages?  Click below for a Forrest refresher:


                    https://waisworld.org/go.jsp?id=02a&l=en&objectType=post&o=136741&objectTypeId=100781&topicId=133


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          • Censorship and "Cara al Sol," Revisited (Carmen Negrin, France 12/21/19 5:43 AM)
            My initial comments concerning "Cara al sol," were not as much to highlight the importance of the Falange, but more to stress the parallel between Hitler's regime (and by extension Mussolini's) and Franco's. This seems to shock José Ignacio Soler. There is nothing new about it.

            I also understand how shocking it may seem to want to censor a song in a play. It just so happens that today, we have Spanish artists who have been sentenced for singing songs with words that criticize the King. And yet that doesn't seem to be a problem.


            Personally I am more annoyed by the "Cara al sol" than by a song which criticizes someone put in power thanks to Franco.


            But again, that was not the purpose of the note. My point is simply: why is it normal for an anthem to be censored because of its historical and political symbolism in one country, namely Germany, and not in another, namely Spain?


            I gave a few examples of the similarities of these regimes. To be more specific, the "scientist" in charge of the Spanish experiments was Antonio Vallejo-Nágera. You can easily find books by him and articles on him on Internet.


            Here's an additional note concerning "Cara al Sol":


            https://cordopolis.es/2019/12/17/el-cara-al-sol-tras-la-misa-de-franco-en-cordoba-llega-a-la-fiscalia/?fbclid=IwAR2ro9sWE5JcyBesqvZl1_kWMvqy5yBQ5TvX0_Nr8WS-JdJZt-wcrlBUfFA#.XfifN38hF8A.facebook


            JE comments:  According to the above, a complaint was lodged against thirty Franco nostalgists in Córdoba for singing "Cara al sol."  The photograph depicts a choir of octogenarians.  Here's a question:   if you want "Cara" to disappear, wouldn't it be better to ignore the old-timers, rather than give them international publicity?


            (Darn it:  I've had the Falangist tune running through my head for three days straight, with no sign of stopping.  Next up:  a follow-up note from Nacho Soler.)


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          • Franco, "Cara al sol," and the Falangists (José Ignacio Soler, Venezuela 12/21/19 7:35 AM)
            I appreciate Carmen Negrín's and Paul Preston's recent posts answering my own about the song "Cara al Sol." Just a few clarifications:

            First Carmen argued the song was in fact the anthem of the Francoism because very soon it became the symbol of the Franco regime. I do not recall evidence that Franco ever wanted this to be the case or that the song was ever imposed formally by his regime. When I was young and studied in Spain, I never had to sing the song at school. Nobody ordered me to do it, and I never learned the lyrics or ever wanted to learn them. For me the song is only a song, without any symbolic meaning. By the way, I read the lyrics today and I did not find any ideological Francoist symbolic meaning attached to it.



            Anyway this discussion is irrelevant; the point I wanted to make is that Carmen's indignation and anger with the song seems out of proportion. If her indignation is justified because the song is representative or a symbol of a criminal dictatorial regime, I wonder why she is not angry with the Internationale, for instance. It is a song which symbolizes the socialist and communist parties around the world, blamed for so many dictatorial and criminal regimes, many even worse than Franco´s. To my knowledge this song is not forbidden in Spain or anywhere in Europe. A little temperance, mildness, coherence and equilibrium is called for.



            I would never wish to argue with Paul Preston on historical issues. However, as a layperson and amateur historian, I found difficult to believe that there is no evidence that Franco wanted to "eliminate" the Falangist party. In fact, the amalgam of the the Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista with the Falange Española imposed by the dictator seemed to many other historians to be clear evidence that he wanted to do so to get rid of this potential rivals for power. To call this political maneuver "domestication" is not to call things by its name, just a euphemism.



            https://www.abc.es/historia/abci-acabo-franco-falange-para-conseguir-poder-absoluto-201907090139_noticia.html




            JE comments:  The song references the Falangist Black Shirts in line one.  (Or did they wear Blue Shirts?)  It's also about as bellicose as a song can be, although we could say the same thing about The Marseillaise and even our Star-Spangled Banner.


            Please, beloved WAISers:  let's give this topic a rest.  It's not good to spend too much time Facing the Sun.  And for my sanity I need to replace the tape running in my brain with a different song.


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