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PostUS-Italy Treaties and Agreements (Eugenio Battaglia, Italy, 06/10/18 3:13 pm)
With reference to David Duggan's post of 9 June, here below is a list of treaties between Italy and the US:
Unconditional Surrender, 03 September 1943 (the Crooked Deal, according to Eisenhower)
Peace Treaty (Diktat), 10 February 1947
NATO Treaty, 04 April 1949
NATO Troops Convention, 19 June 1951
Bilateral Infrastructure, 20 October 1954
Treaty Italy-NATO, 26 July 1961
Bilateral Italy-USA, 16 September 1972
Shell Agreement, 02 Febraury 1995
Stone Ax started in the 1950s, 11 September 2001 (renewed).
An interesting proviso in the Shell Agreement: If an American base is closed, Italy shall pay for subsequent "improvements" (sic).
It is widely believed that each treaty has secret addenda, as David suggested with "there can be loads of side deals and deviations from that contained in the public record."
For sure, the Treaty of 1949 is secret, because following the criminal acts of American pilots which caused the deaths of 20 people at the Cermis (Italy) on 3 February 1998, the Italian PM Massimo D'Alema stated in parliament on 10 March 1999: "The Italian Government will submit to the Judiciary System a test of the Accord of 20 October 1954, secret until now, regulating the US military bases."
But this never happened due to the refusal of the US government.
Of course Americans aren't supposed to make dirty clandestine deals, as the CIA is supposed to do nothing but offer delicious cookies to influence its adversaries.
In response to Carmen Negrín (9 June) on Mussolini, Trump, Berlusconi, etc., my position is well known and I have nothing further to add.
JE comments: Treaties and wars have countless euphemisms: Agreements, Joint Plans of Action, Police Actions, Peacekeeping Operations. The list could go on. Euphemisms make everything more palatable to the public, and also allow the sidestepping of the Constitution.
Stone Ax? It's the code name for the US-Italian nuclear agreement. I found this in the Washington Post. Toy chest? Pine cone? At least a Stone Ax is intimidating, if low-tech.
Toolchest, the code name for the secret technical agreement between the United States and Germany regarding the deployment of nuclear weapons. Toy Chest is the name for the agreement with the Netherlands, Stone Ax for the one with Italy and Pine Cone for the one with Belgium.