Previous posts in this discussion:
PostMussolini Was not Corrupt (Eugenio Battaglia, Italy, 11/27/16 7:27 am)
Commenting on José Ignacio Soler's post of 6 November, JE asked: "Has there ever been an absolutist or near-absolutist regime that wasn't corrupt?"
If you consider Italian Fascism to be a near-absolutist regime, then the answer is "yes."
In spite of the many laws for the purge of Fascists, the first on 9 August 1943, and the Commissions to Investigate the Profits of the Fascist Regime, including the ridiculous work of the Allied Control Commission, no corruption was found.
When Mussolini when was hung by his feet, no coins fell out of his pockets, and no funds were ever found. This is also the case for the major Fascist figures. Arnaldo di Crollananza, minister of Public Works and builder of the new towns of Littoria, Sabaudia, Pontinia, Aprilia, Pomezia, Carbonia, etc., did not even own a house.
At a time in which we are dealing with a series of horrible earthquakes in Italy, we may remember the one of 24 August 1930 at Vulture with a magnitude 6.7 and 1404 deaths. The reconstruction of 3746 houses and the repair of 5190 other houses was ready by 28 October of the same year, and well under budget. In 1980 another earthquake hit the same area, and the "Fascist" houses did not collapse. Only those built after 1945 collapsed.
The town of Littoria (name purged in Latina) was constructed in 6 months. See The National Geographic of August 1934, with photos, one of which has the following caption: "radiant and confident, colonists' children pass in review in the city that was wrested from a swamp."
Now, in this Italian republic (lay, democratic and antifascist, born from the resistance), the bridges are collapsing one week after dedication. Just see the Scorciavacche bridge at Palermo, inaugurated on 23 December 2015. It fell down on 1 January 2016, and of course the construction cost far more than the original budget. The famous autostrada Napoli-Reggio Calabria, started in 1961, will reportedly be completed on 23 December 2016. The amount spent over these 55 years is practically impossible to determine, especially the significant part that ended up in personal pockets.
JE comments: This one from Eugenio Battaglia arrived a couple of weeks ago, but the US election intervened. My thanks to Eugenio for his patience. Eugenio: I know Mussolini made the trains run on time, but how could he reconstruct an entire town in two months? Even if you send in the Army, it sounds impossible. I'd be interested in the logistics.
A Tale of Disaster Relief in Mexico; from Gary Moore
(John Eipper, USA
11/28/16 11:58 AM)
Gary Moore writes:
Here's an odd sequel to Eugenio Battaglia's (November 27) recollection of the Mussolini
government rebuilding an earthquake-ravaged town in two months: In April 2007
a freak EF3 tornado devastated a remote portion of the US-Mexico border, hopping
disastrously through the Rio Grande cities of Eagle Pass, Texas, and Piedras Negras,
Mexico, the latter in the border state of Coahuila. FEMA deployed into the US-side ruins, but soon was embarrassed, for while talking and plans proceeded in Eagle Pass, the
Mexican state authorities over on the other side had already cleared away their debris--and were offering to come across the river and help the US do likewise.
A small army of
volunteers, composed largely of Coahuila state employees turned responders, did cross
and help, in one of the signature efforts of cross-border cooperation. The Coahuila
state governor, Humberto Moreira, came off as the can-do cutter of Gordian knots,
along with his brother and adviser, who was heavily involved. I was in a position, in
that time and place of ironies, to delve into the mysterious lag that made US efforts
slow: It was because FEMA, unlike authorities in Mexico, was constrained by US checks
and balances, and had to individually obtain permissions from all the different property owners
from whose land debris had to be removed. Mexico simply went in and did it--the opposite
of the initiative picture in the stereotypes, with their lagging Mexico and snappy US.
In this peculiar tale are an infinitude of lessons, cautions and hidden snares, one of the
smaller of which was that at that time, in 2007, Piedras Negras prided itself as the "white city"
that was free of Mexico's then-emerging drug-cartel violence, if for no other reason
because it was so far away from anything else. You could drink--or sing--in the landmark
watering hole in Piedras Negras where John Wayne had hung out during filming
(another irony) of The Alamo, and then you could walk the streets of Piedras at any hour
unmolested. I never dreamed what was coming.
A few years later the Zetas expanded
west from Nuevo Laredo. Coahuila was engulfed by such human storms as the Allende
massacre (my previous post). Now the miracle-maker, Humberto Moreira, is in exile
in Spain, after arrest for awhile for involvement with the gore of organized crime.
What does this say about rebuilding villages in record time? Maybe it says that in the
real world there really are ways to make the trains run on time--but it's dicey business,
on both the front end and the back, and deals with many tornadoes.
JE comments: Eugenio Battaglia sent in a correction: the Vulture earthquake occurred on July 23rd, 1930. Still, rebuilding a town in three months might only be possible through the strong hand of authoritarianism. Or consider China's ability to construct massive high-speed railways in record time. Gary Moore gives us another example, from Mexico.