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PostAre the Present Times More Dangerous than the Cold War Era? (Eugenio Battaglia, Italy, 09/17/21 2:21 am)
Excellent, as usual, the post of Tor Guimaraes and the comments of our esteemed moderator (15 September).
However, I believe the political situation of the world is presently more "intense" than during the Cold War: The feud between the US and the Soviet empires was, after all, a feud between two powers derived from European civilization which, at least theoretically after the Stalin era, were following the same rules and International Conventions.
Now the situation is completely different. The Empire is no no longer ruled by wise leaders; its Deep State is out of control. The European countries are tired of the incompetence of said leaders and of their policies that have antagonized Russia, which could have become a very good partner.
Now Europe is in a liquid-gas crisis. In Italy, starting in October, a 40% rise in price is expected due to short supply.
Some years ago I wrote in favor of the South Stream Gasduct, built by Italians and connecting Russia with Italy, but it was banned by the Empire. I was told by a WAIS colleague that it was economically useless (sic). In face of the present crisis and of the completion of North Stream 2, I believe instead that I was correct.
China historically has not been a warmonger country, but it has its interests and priorities. It cannot renounce Taiwan or the China Sea. Here a war by accident could easily flare up. Just suppose a US (or NATO) Navy ship in the region enters into what she (female for ship) believes to be international waters, close to a newly built Chinese island. She receives from a Chinese Navy ship the order to get out. The US/NATO ship does not obey, and the guns start firing.
We also have the extremist Islamists who do not follow any civilized conventions. Their terrorism can explode in a chain of incidents involving also the great powers.
Finally, we have the Israel (and Saudi Arabia)-Iran feud. Lately, Israel has been ruled by warmongers who would like to involve the Empire in a proxy war for Israel against Iran. Remember the speech of Netanyahu at the UN, almost another Colin Powell. So far, Israel has bombed and killed in many places without consequences, but suppose that the next shot ends up on someone who finally retaliates for good?
The situation is bleak, and becoming bleaker and bleaker.
From this point of view of World Peace, the Empire has made many mistakes. The first was Carter's decision of 3 July 1979 in favor of the Taliban. Perhaps the greatest was after the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact on 1 July 1991. Instead of being expanded, NATO should have been dissolved at that time and transformed into an alliance without any military bases outside of the national borders of the US. (With the money saved the US could have probably repaired all its crumbling bridges...in gold.).
The Empire should have also permitted its "allies" some freedom of action within the limit of the said alliance.
For instance, let's have a look at Italy.
On a few occasions, Italy attempted autonomous actions to create the peaceful cooperation of all countries of the Mediterranean area.
The first one in the 1950s and early '60s, with its leaders as Fanfani, La Pira, and moreover with Enrico Mattei, founder of ENI.
The first two were politically eliminated. while the third was "assassinated" in an air accident on 27 October 1962. Again Bettino Craxi in the 1980 tried the same plan but ended up dying in Tunisia in 2000.
The third case with Berlusconi ended with a plot from the judiciary. Berlusconi had transformed Gaddafi into a very good friend of Italy and we all know how that ended--with Hillary Clinton's exclamation: "We came, we saw, he died." Libya is now a den of terrorists, half under a hostile Putin and the other half under a very unreliable Erdogan.
Furthermore, the Gladio, which was founded as a means of resistance in case of a Soviet invasion, under the direction of the CIA became a tool, even with terrorist means, to carry out the policies of Italy.
JE comments: To channel the late Donald Rumsfeld, the Cold War was a period of "known" unknowns. Now, we don't even know what our unknowns are. Case in point: we (meaning, just about everyone, including WAISers) had stopped paying attention to Afghanistan. We now have no shortage of Monday-morning quarterbacks, but even the most prescient specialists did not envision a Taliban takeover in, what, eleven days?
By all accounts, we also screwed up in Libya. While never exactly "our" bastard, Gaddafi had mellowed markedly in the present millennium. But what could have been done differently during the Arab Spring? Send military aid to prop up Gaddafi?
Eugenio, please tell us more about the Gladio, Italy's "stay-behind" paramilitary force in case of Soviet occupation. Most nations in Europe had similar organizations. This is one facet of the Cold War few of us know about.
NATO's Stay-Behind Armies: The Gladio
(Eugenio Battaglia, Italy
09/20/21 2:33 AM)
Our esteemed moderator asked for more information on the Gladio, the "stay-behind" force organized in Italy to combat a potential Soviet occupation.
Immediately after the surrender of the forces of the RSI and of the Third Reich, Northern Italy for a short time was left in the hands of the partisans, mostly communists, with the massacre of thousands of real or supposed Fascists. Then the Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories (note Occupied and not Liberated) was in charge until 31 December 1945.
Theoretically, all the partisans were supposed to turn in their weapons. But not all weapons were delivered by the Communists. Many were hidden for the "second ondata" (second wave), when Communism would take over and Italy would become one more Soviet republic under Father Stalin. I still remember very well my Red neighbors talking (menacingly) about such a radiant future. Of course this would involve the gallows for priests, the bourgeoisie, as well as fascists and their supporters.
Catholic groups and survivors of the RSI organized to fight back, especially for the election of 1948 when the Reds were convinced of victory one way or another. But by that time the Americans had entered the camp, supplying money to the Christian Democrats as well as to the anti-communist groups. With the founding of NATO in 1949, the stay-behind structure was put in place.
Unfortunately, the CIA maintained its old connections with the Mafia, going back to the preparation for the landing in Sicily and practically dictated to the Italian Gladio what to do, including dirty business even when not in the interests of Italy.
For a long period in Italy, we had a small-scale civil war between the Italian state and extremist red groups. Also some right-wing groups emerged, but for a long time the lay-democratic-antifascist media and judiciary system tried to pin all terrorist acts on the latter.
The Red Brigades were founded by old WWII partisans, but their members were mostly young people. During that period Italy was almost a no-man's land where many foreign secret services were committing crimes, from Mossad (one small airplane exploded in retaliation for a favor to the Palestinians), Palestinian extremists, various services from the Soviet empire, and of course the dominant CIA, which for sure succeeded in infiltrating the Red Brigades. The following is taken as proof of it by many:The new leader of the DC, the catto-communist Aldo Moro wanted to form a government in coalition with the Communist party. He had already been warned in 1974 by Henry Kissinger. "If you do not change your line, you will dearly pay for it." In March 1978 on the day that he was supposed to announce his new alliance with the Reds, he was kidnapped by the Red Brigades and then killed. His project was by then dead. See the books Lei la pagherà cara (You will dearly pay) and Friendly Fire: The Moro Kidnapping as False Flag Arranged by the US.
The Italian state succeeded in eliminating most of the extremist Left as well as any fascist revival, but the interference of the CIA left a nation destroyed, more spiritually than materially, as the interests of the CIA quite often were against the sound interests of the Italian nation.
On 22 November 1990, the European Parliament approved a resolution condemning the existence of the stay-behind Gladio organization and requested an investigation. This action followed the speech of Italian PM Giulio Andreotti on 2 August 1990, in which he acknowledged the existence of such a secret paramilitary force in Europe. Practically only Italy and Belgium investigated Gladio.
The most detailed book on Gladio is by the Swiss scholar Daniele Ganser: NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe.
Personally, I found the book rather biased, as he does not place the birth of Gladio and all its actions in the appropriate historical context. Personally, I do not appreciate his appraisal of Italian Prince Valerio Borghese. Borghese was a great hero both in the kingdom of Italy and then in the RSI. Even if he was only a military man and not a fascist, he refused the surrender and betrayal of 9 September 1943 and organized his autonomous powerful force as an ally of the Third Reich. He never was at the service of the latter but stayed within the RSI. Ganser even seems to regret that Borghese was saved from the partisans' gallows by his former enemy and admirer (what is wrong with admiring an enemy if he deserves it?) Admiral Ellery Stone with the help of the great OSS man James Angleton.
JE comments: The Wikipedia entry on Gladio states that similar organizations existed in almost all the NATO states, but Italy's Gladio came into use as the generic for them all. The biggest problem with paramilitary forces is having armed and trained operatives with nothing to do. The vacuum tends to get filled with all kinds of mischief.
What is the current state of scholarship on the Moro kidnapping-murder? I have heard versions that the Italian government (with NATO and CIA complicity) resolved to "sacrifice" Moro (i.e., allow the Red Brigades to kill him), but it's a stretch to call the whole thing a false-flag conspiracy. Nonetheless, few in Italy believe the official accounts. Will we ever know the full story? Probably not.