Login/Sign up

World Association of International Studies

Post Inclusive Nationalism and Supremacist Nationalism
Created by John Eipper on 02/04/19 2:12 PM

Previous posts in this discussion:


Inclusive Nationalism and Supremacist Nationalism (José Ignacio Soler, Venezuela, 02/04/19 2:12 pm)

In what was supposed to be my last post on the question of language and politics in Catalonia, John E remarked, "Spanish nationalism is 'inclusive'? This may be the case at present, but what about under Franco? Such memories cannot be erased overnight. "

John's statement, apparently well-intentioned, caused me to reflect on the subject. First I was surprised that he mentioned Franco's repression and post-Civil War retaliation as an expression of something called "Spanish nationalism," and second that he mentioned, out of the current context, something that happened more than 50 years ago.

It is a common mistake to justify the current Catalonian nationalist/independentist movement as a result of the Franco regime's repression of Catalonia. This belief is far from true. As we've seen before on WAIS, the independentist expectations are much older. In fact, they can be confirmed from many sources. At the same time, Catalonian independentist supporters were just a minority, perhaps 20% to 25% of the population, even a few years ago.

It is true that Franco suppressed many democratic rights in Catalonia, as much as in any other place in Spain. His regime prohibited political parties, persecuted and executed political adversaries, restrained the free press, abolished the regional Estatutos de Autonomía, and Castilian Spanish was imposed as the only official language in the country over the other regional languages, Gallego, Euskera and Catalan. I have no desire to defend Franco's totalitarian ideology, but all these repressive measures might well have responded to his military and simplistic vision for reunifying a weak, fragmented and divided society after the war.

To motivate collective support, he also used nationalistic symbols which according to concept of "nationalism" had distinctive features. Here are some of the features, which I consider to be perverse when politically manipulated:

1. Historical pride, a deep nostalgic sentiment of having had a glorious past, a Golden Age.

2. A supremacist belief. They are different, therefore better than "others."

3. An external enemy, to justify present failures or decadence.

4. "Victimismo" (Victimhood). A recurrent state of mind in which they consider themselves to be victims of perceived or presumed acts of persecution, oppression, humiliation, and offenses by their external enemies, their oppressors or exploiters.

In the case of Catalonian nationalism these elements are clearly present.

In Franco's nationalistic ideology, all these elements were more or less explicitly present. For instance and particularly the national supremacist feeling represented by Catholic and traditionalist values; or the "external enemies" represented by the leftist, communist, anarchist and regionalist movements that sought the fragmentation of Spain. In this sense his nationalism might be considered "exclusive" and "supremacist."

Nevertheless and fortunately, Franco's economic policies were more progressive, perhaps because he was not particularly interested or lacked talent in this subject, and he delegated the field to more skilled people. Ironically, Catalonia was very much favored by these policies. This fact can be contrasted easily from official sources of the time, but let's simplify it by saying that during the Franco years, despite political and cultural repression, this region had the highest economic growth in Spain and ironically not because it was victim of his "exclusive nationalistic" ideology.

Getting back at present times, I believe that currently the "Spanish Nationalism" decried by Catalonian independentists is very different from Franco's. Not only because Spanish society has matured in many positive and democratic ways.  It has also evolved to preserve Spain's territorial integrity to confront the segregationist Catalonian purpose, and in this very sense is "inclusive" and not "supremacist."

JE comments:  Might the question ultimately boil down to language?  Has there ever a minority language community that hasn't felt disrespected--kicked around, even?  Who can give us insight on French and Italian speakers in Switzerland?

In the Spanish context, consider this hypothetical:  would there be a Catalan separatist movement if there were no language difference?

Rate this post
Informational value 
Reader Ratings (0)
Informational value0%

Visits: 132


Please login/register to reply or comment: Login/Sign up

Trending Now

All Forums with Published Content (42031 posts)

- Unassigned

Culture & Language

American Indians Art Awards Bestiary of Insults Books Conspiracy Theories Culture Ethics Film Food Futurology Gender Issues Humor Intellectuals Jews Language Literature Media Coverage Movies Music Newspapers Numismatics Philosophy Plagiarism Prisons Racial Issues Sports Tattoos Western Civilization World Communications


Capitalism Economics International Finance World Bank World Economy


Education Hoover Institution Journal Publications Libraries Universities World Bibliography Series


Biographies Conspiracies Crime Decline of West German Holocaust Historical Figures History Holocausts Individuals Japanese Holocaust Leaders Learning Biographies Learning History Russian Holocaust Turkish Holocaust


Afghanistan Africa Albania Algeria Argentina Asia Australia Austria Bangladesh Belgium Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Central America Chechnya Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark East Europe East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador England Estonia Ethiopia Europe European Union Finland France French Guiana Germany Greece Guatemala Haiti Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Persia) Iraq Ireland Israel/Palestine Italy Japan Jordan Kenya Korea Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Latin America Liberia Libya Mali Mexico Middle East Mongolia Morocco Namibia Nations Compared Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria North America Norway Pacific Islands Pakistan Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Polombia Portugal Romania Saudi Arabia Scandinavia Scotland Serbia Singapore Slovakia South Africa South America Southeast Asia Spain Sudan Sweden Switzerland Syria Thailand The Pacific Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine USA (America) USSR/Russia Uzbekistan Venezuela Vietnam West Europe Yemen Yugoslavia Zaire


Balkanization Communism Constitutions Democracy Dictators Diplomacy Floism Global Issues Hegemony Homeland Security Human Rights Immigration International Events Law Nationalism NATO Organizations Peace Politics Terrorism United Nations US Elections 2008 US Elections 2012 US Elections 2016 Violence War War Crimes Within the US


Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Liberation Theology Religion

Science & Technology

Alcohol Anthropology Automotives Biological Weapons Design and Architecture Drugs Energy Environment Internet Landmines Mathematics Medicine Natural Disasters Psychology Recycling Research Science and Humanities Sexuality Space Technology World Wide Web (Internet)


Geography Maps Tourism Transportation


1-TRIBUTES TO PROFESSOR HILTON 2001 Conference on Globalizations Academic WAR Forums Ask WAIS Experts Benefactors Chairman General News Member Information Member Nomination PAIS Research News Ronald Hilton Quotes Seasonal Messages Tributes to Prof. Hilton Varia Various Topics WAIS WAIS 2006 Conference WAIS Board Members WAIS History WAIS Interviews WAIS NEWS waisworld.org launch WAR Forums on Media & Research Who's Who