Login/Sign up

World Association of International Studies

Post Mussolini's Racial Laws, 1938
Created by John Eipper on 09/01/17 3:26 AM

Previous posts in this discussion:


Mussolini's Racial Laws, 1938 (Eugenio Battaglia, Italy, 09/01/17 3:26 am)

I will try to clarify the questions raised by Salvatore Bizzarro, 15 August.

It is very complicated for someone who knows the many good things accomplished by Mussolini, to speak about the Italian Racist Laws of 1938.  It is like sipping bleach and while smiling and saying it is delicious.

Let's start with Mussolini. He was never anti-Semitic. It is enough to see his humanist socialist education, his Jewish lovers and his political actions. Many Jews joined the Fascist Movement from the beginning, and he placed many of them in his governments.

The relations of the Jewish Community with Mussolini were excellent.  See the Gold Commemorative Medal on the occasion of the law of 30 October 1930 that abolished the last discrimination against Jews from reaching the highest ranks in Italy.  For some high-level appointments it had been necessary to be Catholic.

Mussolini did not act in favor just of the Italian Jews, but also opened Nautical and Agricultural schools for foreign Jews.

Mussolini maintained very good relations with the Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann (and Vladimir Zabotinskij), and in 1935 he asked for his help against the Sanctions, but Weizmann refused and sided with the UK.  Who knows if a different action could have changed history?

Just a short time earlier, Mussolini had granted him thousands of visas for Jews escaping from Germany.

The racist law was not anti-Semitic. In reality it was pushed forward following also the fact that in East Africa too many children were born from Italian fathers and local women. The problem was that many of these Italians were already married and that created big problems.

Anyway, Italian racism had nothing to do with the Nazis. Himmler in 1943 stated: "Fascism and Nazism are two fundamentally different things. No comparison is possible between Fascism and Nazism." In fact the so-called Fascist racism was born in view of the possible war and the antagonism of World Zionism.

Anyway the painful Italian Law "In Difesa della Razza" was not attacking all Jews. In fact the following groups remained untouched:

1) Families of soldiers killed or wounded in previous wars.

2) Families of soldiers who received decorations or who went voluntarily to wars.

3) Families of Fascists killed or injured for the Fascist cause.

4) Families of Fascists enrolled in the party in 1919-25.

5) Families who had specific merits.

Theoretically no Jewish doctor could take care of a non-Jewish Italian, but (in the typical Italian style) in case of an emergency it was permitted to call a Jewish doctor and so on. So in a population of 47,252 Italian Jews, about ten or eleven thousand could escape the law.

Special schools were formed for the others, but the students generally could finish their studies. Many Jews lost their jobs and were placed in paid retirement. The order was to discriminate but not persecute.

Fermi did not escape but was regularly sent to Columbia University in New York with regular paid leave from the University of Rome.

The law was discussed by the Representatives and the Senators.  None voted against it and the lousy king approved.

But the Jewish fascist Colonel Giorgio Mopurgo, in protest, advanced alone against the Republican lines in Spain until he was killed. He was awarded the gold medal. The Jewish fascist editor Fortunato Formiggini, a good friend of Mussolini, jumped from a window and killed himself in protest.

There was no protest from the Vatican, and the future PM of postwar Italy, De Gasperi, said: "Italian racism shall develop in concrete actions of defense and enhance the values of the nation."

We could go on at length to show the anti-Semitism of many who after WWII became antifascists.  See the historian Bocca, the ministers Spadolini and Fanfani. PM Andreotti ordered the burning of all the favorable declarations made by the post-WWII democrats.

During the period of Italian neutrality, as I have written earlier on WAIS, Italy opened its borders (funny, Jews escaping to Italy in spite of the law), and helping both Jewish and non-Jewish Poles. When Italy entered the war, Italian troops received the order from Mussolini (in one way or another) to protect all Jewish Communities.

During the war, at least while Mussolini remained in power, the Germans never dared to do anything against the Jews in Italy or in the Italian-occupied zones.

About the protection of the Jews in the Italian-occupied zones, the General Prosecutor Husner in his speech against Adolf Eichman stated: "The Nation most dear to Israel is Italy for what its civilians, diplomats, and military have done to help masses of Jews in France, Greece and Croatia; moving into the Italian zone meant safety." There are plenty of reports on this matter that show the protection of the Jews by Fascists and by Mussolini himself.

A dear friend of mine, when he was in the San Marco Division of the RSI had a Jewish mate loyal until the end.

In such a policy there was also, perhaps, the willingness of Mussolini to show that Italy was much better than Germany and after a possible victorious war the European nations (perhaps excluding Croatia) would have sided with Italy in case of a possible showdown.

JE comments:  Eugenio Battaglia's "drinking bleach" analogy is priceless!  (Ever been to a faculty meeting?  A round of Clorox for everyone!)

Eugenio, what do you mean by this:  "During the war, at least while Mussolini remained in power, the Germans never dared to do anything against the Jews in Italy or in the Italian-occupied zones"?  If this is accurate, then why were any of the Jewish Italians deported to the camps?

To my mind the question boils down to this:  is there any way to sugarcoat racial laws?  Let us not forget that at the same time, the US had Jim Crow and many unwritten exclusions against Jews.  Gulp...bleach.

Rate this post
Informational value 
Reader Ratings (0)
Informational value0%

Visits: 173


Please login/register to reply or comment: Login/Sign up

Trending Now

All Forums with Published Content (40105 posts)

- Unassigned

Culture & Language

American Indians Art Awards Bestiary of Insults Books Conspiracy Theories Culture Ethics Film Food Futurology Gender Issues Humor Intellectuals Jews Language Literature Media Coverage Movies Music Newspapers Numismatics Philosophy Plagiarism Prisons Racial Issues Sports Tattoos Western Civilization World Communications


Capitalism Economics International Finance World Bank World Economy


Education Hoover Institution Journal Publications Libraries Universities World Bibliography Series


Biographies Conspiracies Crime Decline of West German Holocaust Historical Figures History Holocausts Individuals Japanese Holocaust Leaders Learning Biographies Learning History Russian Holocaust Turkish Holocaust


Afghanistan Africa Albania Algeria Argentina Asia Australia Austria Bangladesh Belgium Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Central America Chechnya Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark East Europe East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador England Estonia Ethiopia Europe European Union Finland France French Guiana Germany Greece Guatemala Haiti Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Persia) Iraq Ireland Israel/Palestine Italy Japan Jordan Kenya Korea Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Latin America Liberia Libya Mali Mexico Middle East Mongolia Morocco Namibia Nations Compared Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria North America Norway Pacific Islands Pakistan Palestine Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Polombia Portugal Romania Saudi Arabia Scandinavia Scotland Serbia Singapore Slovakia South Africa South America Southeast Asia Spain Sudan Sweden Switzerland Syria Thailand The Pacific Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine USA (America) USSR/Russia Uzbekistan Venezuela Vietnam West Europe Yemen Yugoslavia Zaire


Balkanization Communism Constitutions Democracy Dictators Diplomacy Floism Global Issues Hegemony Homeland Security Human Rights Immigration International Events Law Nationalism NATO Organizations Peace Politics Terrorism United Nations US Elections 2008 US Elections 2012 US Elections 2016 Violence War War Crimes Within the US


Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Liberation Theology Religion

Science & Technology

Alcohol Anthropology Automotives Biological Weapons Design and Architecture Drugs Energy Environment Internet Landmines Mathematics Medicine Natural Disasters Psychology Recycling Research Science and Humanities Sexuality Space Technology World Wide Web (Internet)


Geography Maps Tourism Transportation


1-TRIBUTES TO PROFESSOR HILTON 2001 Conference on Globalizations Academic WAR Forums Ask WAIS Experts Benefactors Chairman General News Member Information Member Nomination PAIS Research News Ronald Hilton Quotes Seasonal Messages Tributes to Prof. Hilton Varia Various Topics WAIS WAIS 2006 Conference WAIS Board Members WAIS History WAIS Interviews WAIS NEWS waisworld.org launch WAR Forums on Media & Research Who's Who